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FILME SECOND GLANCE BAIXAR


FILME SECOND GLANCE BAIXAR - Enviada por Thierry, Traduzida por Lennon. To stand out Above the crowd Even if I gotta shout out loud Till mine is the only. BAIXAR FILME SECOND GLANCE - Desktop Google Chrome Windows 8. Os lances funcionam assim. Este vendedor exige que o comprador tenha uma conta. BAIXAR FILME SECOND GLANCE - Mobile Android iPhone Windows Phone. Experimente aumentar o valor do seu lance mais alto. We will send you a revised .

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SECOND BAIXAR FILME GLANCE

As cities are in continuous construction and deconstruction, these characters seem suspended souls, prowling in an eternal non-place on the edges of this new China that is building up — and the fact that they never fit creates a permanent instability in his movies. Camera is staring at the crowds in Tiananmen Square. Quando ouviu o espelho dizer isso, ela tremeu e se sacudiu de raiva, gritando: - Branca de Neve tem que morrer! To stand out Above the crowd Even if I gotta shout out loud Till mine is the only face you'll see Gonna The dissent acting in the sensible division between common worlds. Até o egoísmo tem um domínio cada vez maior sobre nós. He expressed himself like a preaching pastor, as if each of his comments where an absolute truth. Ele é geralmente considerado simplório, aquele cara típi- co de uma cidadezinha do interior. Todos esses aspectos em conjunto, ou seja, os filmes de Jia e suas declarações, fazem com que muitos entendam que o cineasta seja provavelmente proveniente de uma família muito humilde. Many years later, when I heard others referring to them as an unfathomable community, quixotic Don Quixotes, and ill-timed and deviant monsters, I laughed. On the contrary, multifocal perspective privileges the idea of a movement across the painting, as if the landscape was being observed from different points of view.

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Pagarei por ele o quanto vocês pedirem. Venha comigo até o castelo de meu pai e vamos nos casar. Branca de Neve também se apaixonou pelo príncipe e foi com ele. Começaram logo os preparativos para uma festa maravilhosa de casamento. A madrasta malvada de Branca de Neve também foi convidada.

Ouvindo isso, a malvada xingou e amaldiçoou. It was the middle of winter, and the snow-flakes were falling like feathers from the sky, and a queen sat at her window working, and her embroidery-frame was of ebony.

And as she worked, gazing at times out on the snow, she pricked her finger, and there fell from it three drops of blood on the snow. And when she saw how bright and red it looked, she said to herself, "Oh that I had a child as white as snow, as red as blood, and as black as the wood of the embroidery frame!

And when she was born the queen died. After a year had gone by the king took another wife, a beautiful woman, but proud and overbearing, and she could not bear to be surpassed in beauty by any one.

She had a magic looking-glass, and she used to stand before it, and look in it, and say, "Looking-glass upon the wall, Who is fairest of us all? Now, Snow-white was growing prettier and prettier, and when she was seven years old she was as beautiful as day, far more so than the queen herself. So one day when the queen went to her mirror and said, "Looking-glass upon the wall, Who is fairest of us all?

And envy and pride like ill weeds grew in her heart higher every day, until she had no peace day or night.

At last she sent for a huntsman, and said, "Take the child out into the woods, so that I may set eyes on her no more. You must put her to death, and bring me her heart for a token. Just at that moment a young wild boar came running by, so he caught and killed it, and taking out its heart, he brought it to the queen for a token. And it was salted and cooked, and the wicked woman ate it up, thinking that there was an end of Snow-white.

Now, when the poor child found herself quite alone in the wild woods, she felt full of terror, even of the very leaves on the trees, and she did not know what to do for fright. Then she began to run over the sharp stones and through the thorn bushes, and the wild beasts after her, but they did her no harm. She ran as long as her feet would carry her; and when the evening drew near she came to a little house, and she went inside to rest. Everything there was very small, but as pretty and clean as possible.

There stood the little table ready laid, and covered with a white cloth, and seven little plates, and seven knives and forks, and drinking-cups. By the wall stood seven little beds, side by side, covered with clean white quilts. Snow-white, being very hungry and thirsty, ate from each plate a little porridge and bread, and drank out of each little cup a drop of wine, so as not to finish up one portion alone.

After that she felt so tired that she lay down on one of the beds, but it did not seem to suit her; one was too long, another too short, but at last the seventh was quite right; and so she lay down upon it, committed herself to heaven, and fell asleep. When it was quite dark, the masters of the house came home. They were seven dwarfs, whose occupation was to dig underground among the mountains. When they had lighted their seven candles, and it was quite light in the little house, they saw that some one must have been in, as everything was not in the same order in which they left it.

The first said, "Who has been sitting in my little chair? Then he told the others, who came running up, crying out in their astonishment, and holding up their seven little candles to throw a light upon Snow-white. O gracious! And the seventh dwarf slept with his comrades, an hour at a time with each, until the night had passed. When it was morning, and Snow-white awoke and saw the seven dwarfs, she was very frightened; but they seemed quite friendly, and asked her what her name was, and she told them; and then they asked how she came to be in their house.

And she related to them how her step-mother had wished her to be put to death, and how the huntsman had spared her life, and how she had run the whole day long, until at last she had found their little house. Then the dwarfs said, "If you will keep our house for us, and cook, and wash, and make the beds, and sew and knit, and keep everything tidy and clean, you may stay with us, and you shall lack nothing.

In the morning the dwarfs went to the mountain to dig for gold; in the evening they came home, and their supper had to be ready for them. All the day long the maiden was left alone, and the good little dwarfs warned her, saying, "Beware of your step-mother, she will soon know you are here. Let no one into the house. And she thought and thought how she could manage to make an end of her, for as long as she was not the fairest in the land, envy left her no rest.

At last she thought of a plan; she painted her face and dressed herself like an old pedlar woman, so that no one would have known her. In this disguise she went across the seven mountains, until she came to the house of the seven little dwarfs, and she knocked at the door and cried, "Fine wares to sell!

Not long after that, towards evening, the seven dwarfs came home, and were terrified to see their dear Snow-white lying on the ground, without life or motion; they raised her up, and when they saw how tightly she was laced they cut the lace in two; then she began to draw breath, and little by little she returned to life.

When the dwarfs heard what had happened they said, "The old pedlar woman was no other than the wicked queen; you must beware of letting any one in when we are not here!

Then she dressed herself up to look like another different sort of old woman. So she went across the seven mountains and came to the house of the seven dwarfs, and knocked at the door and cried, "Good wares to sell! It pleased the poor child so much that she was tempted to open the door; and when the bargain was made the old woman said, "Now, for once your hair shall be properly combed.

By good luck it was now near evening, and the seven little dwarfs came home. When they saw Snow-white lying on the ground as dead, they thought directly that it was the step-mother's doing, and looked about, found the poisoned comb, and no sooner had they drawn it out of her hair than Snow-white came to herself, and related all that had passed.

Then they warned her once more to be on her guard, and never again to let any one in at the door. And the queen went home and stood before the looking-glass and said, "Looking-glass against the wall, Who is fairest of us all?

It was beautiful to look upon, being white with red cheeks, so that any one who should see it must long for it, but whoever ate even a little bit of it must die. When the apple was ready she painted her face and clothed herself like a peasant woman, and went across the seven mountains to where the seven dwarfs lived. And when she knocked at the door Snow-white put her head out of the window and said, "I dare not let anybody in; the seven dwarfs told me not.

There, I will give you one. Snow-white longed for the beautiful apple, and as she saw the peasant woman eating a piece of it she could no longer refrain, but stretched out her hand and took the poisoned half. But no sooner had she taken a morsel of it into her mouth than she fell to the earth as dead. And the queen, casting on her a terrible glance, laughed aloud and cried, "As white as snow, as red as blood, as black as ebony!

The dwarfs, when they came home in the evening, found Snow-white lying on the ground, and there came no breath out of her mouth, and she was dead.

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They lifted her up, sought if anything poisonous was to be found, cut her laces, combed her hair, washed her with water and wine, but all was of no avail, the poor child was dead, and remained dead.

Then they laid her on a bier, and sat all seven of them round it, and wept and lamented three whole days. And then they would have buried her, but that she looked still as if she were living, with her beautiful blooming cheeks.

So they said, "We cannot hide her away in the black ground. Then they set the coffin out upon the mountain, and one of them always remained by it to watch. And the birds came too, and mourned for Snow-white, first an owl, then a raven, and lastly, a dove. Now, for a long while Snow-white lay in the coffin and never changed, but looked as if she were asleep, for she was still as' white as snow, as red as blood, and her hair was as black as ebony.

It happened, however, that one day a king's son rode through the wood and up to the dwarfs' house, which was near it. He saw on the mountain the coffin, and beautiful Snow-white within it, and he read what was written in golden letters upon it.

Then he said to the dwarfs, "Let me have the coffin, and I will give you whatever you like to ask for it. But he said, "I beseech you to give it me, for I cannot live without looking upon Snow-white; if you consent I will bring you to great honour, and care for you as if you were my brethren.

Now it happened that as they were going along they stumbled over a bush, and with the shaking the bit of poisoned apple flew out of her throat. It was not long before she opened her eyes, threw up the cover of the coffin, and sat up, alive and well.

It is hard to imagine that the chinese Quentin Tarantino will not come from the crowds, passing his time in the bootlegged CD stores. In the same way, you will have difficulty arguing that the contemporary Shinsuke Ogawa would not be a part of the kids that use digital video. Cinema can no longer be a privilege reserved to a few. It belongs, as a principle, to everyone. In Shanghai, I have been in contact with a multitude of cinema ama- teurs.

These friends, who make a living repairing airplanes or in advertising, may announce the future of chinese cinema. I have always felt aversion to the feeling of superiority coming from members of the profession. And yet, the amateurs are avid for equality and justice; they occupy themselves with our condition and with compassion for ordinary people. Neste breve ensaio, destaco quatro as- pectos que resumem a mencionada excepcionalidade de Jia.

Em primeiro lugar, é preciso considerar a sua história de vida. Ele é geralmente considerado simplório, aquele cara típi- co de uma cidadezinha do interior. Realmente, é verdade que ele tem origem em uma cidade pequena, mas ele é um sujeito muito mais culto e cosmopolita, que um sujeito tipicamente oriundo de pequenas cidades, longe dos grandes centros urbanos. E por quê? Porque em segundo lugar ele é atípico e brilhante entre os seus pares.

Sendo assim, como é possível que Jia seja ainda considerado como um associado desse seleto grupo? Finalmente, além de tudo isso, Jia é também considerado o rei do cinema independente. Um cara culto vindo do interior As pessoas têm se atentado às origens de vida e o histórico de Jia, desde os seus pri- meiros filmes.

O curta-metragem, Volta para casa Xiao Shan huijia, , foi filmado em Pequim, mas o protagonista Xiao Shan é um trabalhador que havia migrado, e tentava conseguir dinheiro para baixar a passagem de volta para casa, e visitar a família no Ano Novo chinês, em Fenyang. O filme seguinte, Prazeres desconhecidos Ren xiao yao, , foi feito na cidade de Datong, um pouco maior que Shanxi. Todos esses aspectos em conjunto, ou seja, os filmes de Jia e suas declarações, fazem com que muitos entendam que o cineasta seja provavelmente proveniente de uma família muito humilde.

A ideia de que um sujeito considerado simplório, vindo do interior, venha a se tornar um dos cineastas chineses mais refinados e reconhecidos, ganhando prêmios em festivais internacionais como Veneza e Cannes, é um prato cheio para a imprensa.

Mas a bagagem cultural de sua família é ampla e substancial. Sob este aspecto, as suas origens se assemelham a história de Zhang Yimou. Essa foi uma experiência que mudou a vida de Jia, e, finalmente o conduziu a Academia de Cinema de Pequim. Entretanto, também nesse momento, ele se tornou uma figura incomum. Dessa forma, quando os cineastas mais jovens começaram a dirigir seus primeiros filmes na década de 80, ha- via uma diferença marcante entre eles e os seus antecessores.

Eles primeiro aceitavam um determinado grupo de alunos, os educava e formava, e depois aceitavam outro grupo de estudantes. Obviamente, considerando o período de 15 anos que se seguiu até a próxima turma, esse grupo seria ainda mais diferenciado.

Um artista batedor de carteiras é muito especificamente sobre Fenyang. Fazer filmes usando locações em sua própria cidade, sem figurinos caros e extravagantes ou produções em grande estilo ajudam a economizar dinheiro. E, além disso, seus filmes divergem do estilo que caracteriza e identifica aquele grupo. Ao invés disto, ele e Wang Hongwei, que viria a representar o papel principal nos filmes Volta para casa e Um artista batedor de carteiras, e passou a ser uma das principais figuras no cinema independente chinês, fizeram parte apenas da turma de teoria do cinema.

O contato com Bazin, um grande nome entre os professores da Academia de Cinema de Pequim, pode ter influenciado o estilo de longas sequências, planos, e o realismo caracterís- tico no cinema de Jia. O antirrealista identificado como realista Com a ausência de um treinamento formal em Cinema e a as alegações quanto as suas origens como um cara simplório do interior, combinadas com o baixo orçamento e o uso de locações comuns em seus filmes, o trabalho de Jia tem sido aclamado como realista.

Em contraste com a aparência altamente re- buscada, brilhante e otimista do realismo socialista shehuizhuyi xianshizhuyi , esse novo estilo foi chamado jishizhuyi. Em Em busca da vida, a ruptura com o realismo é ainda mais acentuada, quando, graças ao CGI, um monumento parece se incendiar e decolar como um foguete rumo ao espaço. Independentemente de como clas- sificar o seu trabalho, esses elementos diferenciam Jia da maioria dos realistas chamados puristas, desse tradicional movimento de um realismo flagrante, realizado por muitos dos seus admiradores.

Nunca é por acaso que uma determinada parede expondo um slogan político aparece ao fundo em uma cena. A forma como um longa tomada é finalizada, com um close-up em um determinado detalhe, demonstra muito planejamento. Talvez o mais evidente é o uso de som fora da tela. Ele é conhecido na China e em todo o mundo como o maior cineasta independente de todos os tempos. Jia foi, certamente, um deles.

Mas o sucesso é sempre uma faca de dois gumes na China. Realmente, à época houve muitas discussões sobre isso. O significado de independente vem mudando na China. Esse também é o caso da China. Embora Jia venha apresentando seus trabalhos previamente aos censores desde O Mundo, ele continua a operar de forma independente, buscando seu próprio mode- lo, de relativo baixo orçamento, para suas produções.

Mais recentemente, essa tendência no mer- cado atingiu um outro patamar, quando o filme independente de Diao Yinan, Black Coal, Thin Ice ganhou o Urso de Ouro em Berlim, e foi lançado com sucesso na China. I also mean that he is someone unusual in relation to his context. First, there is his personal background. He is usually thought of as a provincial, small-town guy. It is true that he comes from a small city, but he is much more cultured and metropolitan than the typical small-town guy.

Second, he is exceptional among his peers. So, how come Jia is considered a leading member of this cohort? Third, his films are exceptional. Yet this member of the gritty realist school is also the Chinese feature film director whose work diverges furthest from realism.

Finally, Jia is considered the king of the independent filmmaker. Yet, according to the Chinese definition of the, he stopped being an independent a long time ago. A Sophisticated Small-Town Boy Turning to his background first, people have paid attention to where Jia came from ever since his earliest films. They were all set in or associated with his home province of Shanxi in central north China and usually also with his hometown of Fenyang, a city of less than half a million people.

But the protagonist, Xiao Shan, is a migrant worker trying to find a way to get the money and baixar a ticket home to visit his family for Chinese New Year — in Fenyang. Xiao Wu and his second film, Platform, Zhantai were both set in Fen- yang, and his next film, Unknown Pleasures Ren xiao yao was set in the somewhat larger Shanxi city of Datong. Even when his films finally left Shanxi Province with The World Shi- jie , set in a theme park supposedly located on the outskirts of Beijing, his main characters were still migrants from Shanxi.

Even though many of his more recent films have taken him even further from Shanxi, and it is reported that his next film will be his first international production, shot in Australia, references back to his home continue in many of his films. Therefore, his films themselves seem to draw attention to his background. And in a country where most filmmakers have a more metropolitan background, coming from somewhere like Fenyang is itself exceptional. Platform follows the efforts of a formerly state-funded song and dance troupe, as they try to come up with new entertainments that people will actually pay to watch.

And the two main characters in Unknown Pleasures are unemployed youths with no prospects. The idea that a provincial, small-town boy can become one of the most sophisticated of Chinese film directors and go on to win prizes at festivals like Venice and Cannes makes a good story for the press.

But it is a bit too simple. Because, in terms of his background, Jia is not only an exception to the usual elite upbringing of filmmak- ers.

SECOND GLANCE BAIXAR FILME

He is also an exception to the usual idea of what a small-town boy should be like. It is true that Jia was born in Fenyang in , and brought up there.

But his family background is very cultured. So, how did they end up in a backwater like Fengyang? In this regard, his background echoes that of Zhang Yimou.

Despite growing up in humble circumstances among more ordinary families, both Zhang and Jia got plenty of cultural education at home. When Jia failed his university entrance examinations be- cause his maths scores were not high enough, this cultural background helped him get into an art school in the provincial capital of Taiyuan.

This was a life-changing moment for Jia, and eventually it led him to the Beijing Film Academy. However, here, too, he became an unusual figure. So, when younger filmmakers started directing their first films in the s, there was a marked difference between them and their prede- cessors.

At that time, the Beijing Film Academy did not take in film production students every year. They took in one group, trained them, graduated them, and then took in another. Why did this idea of generations become so popular when talking about Chinese film- makers, and who are the first, second and third generations? Here, we have to remember that it was with the Fifth Generation that the generation concept first entered general usage. One reason is because of their films really stood apart from those of their predecessors.

Another possible reason is that this was the first time Chinese cinema won international attention. At the time, I was working for China Film Export and Import Corporation, the government agency with a monopoly on the film trade. We often found ourselves dealing with festival programmers and distributors who could not remember let alone pronounce Chinese names. Now that filmmakers are trained at many institutions and the clear markers between generational cohorts is not so evident, young filmmakers are no longer being grouped as the seventh or eighth generations.

Precisely because the generational way of thinking about Chinese filmmakers arose in the s and was then applied retrospectively, it is used much more rarely when talking about earlier directors.

Some people claim that the first, second, and third generations re- fers to the first, second, and third cohorts to graduate from the Beijing Film Academy. But in its early years it did not operate with such clearly defined cohorts as it did later. Even though watching a Fifth Generation film is what drew Jia into filmmaking, the type of film that he and the next generation of filmmakers produced is very different from the Fifth Generation type.

They were often epic and grand in style, and understood to be fable-like national allegories. In contrast, the Sixth Generation cinema is considered to be urban, contemporary, and realist.

Each film is about what it appears to be about, rather than an allegory for some larger and more abstract entity like the nation-state.

Xiao Wu is very specifically about Fenyang. Not only is it all shot on the streets of the city, but it is mostly in the local dialect, or at least one that is close enough that only Fenyang natives will notice the difference.

In the film, it is only officials and policemen who speak Mandarin. The desire to mark themselves out from the previous generation and produce their own brand was certainly part of the story. Jia and others have spoken of not feeling that they saw their own lives and those of other young Chinese in either Fifth Generation films or mainstream culture, and wanting to rectify this.

Another reason would be the need to work with very small budgets. With radically reduced income possibilities, it was necessary to work cheaply. Making films using locations in your own town and with no fancy costumes or grand style helps to save money. Yet, by strict definition, he is not a member of the group at all. And, furthermore, his films diverge from the style.

First, Jia was a not a member of production class that graduated from the Beijing Film Academy in Instead he and Wang Hongwei, who took the lead role in both Xiao Shan Going Home and Xiao Wu, and has gone on to be a leading figure in Chinese inde- pendent cinema, were both in the film theory class.

Certainly, as a theory student rather than a production student, his chances of getting funded to make films were minimal. So, this is another rea- son for going independent when he did decide to start making films.

The Non-Realist Realist. In contrast to the highly crafted, glossy, and optimistic look of socialist realism shehuizhuyi xianshizhuyi , this new style was called jishizhuyi. But Jia himself has made documentaries throughout his career, and they also seem to fit into this mould. Not only is he a small-town boy, but he has no formal training in filmmaking.

He just puts his camera down in the street and records long takes, and somehow, miraculously, the result is a work of genius that reveals the real China. Here, I will not get into the whole impossible philosophical debate about whether and in what sense realism reveals the truth.

And so, it should also come as no surprise to realize that his style is not some sort of un- tutored primitivism, either. Casual viewers first became aware that Jia was not a strict realist with The World. These are rendered as short animations of the type one might have viewed on a mobile phone at the time.

In Still Life, the break with realism is even more marked, when, thanks to CGI, a monument appears to fire up and take off like a rocket into space. Regardless of how to classify his work, they set it apart from most of the nitty gritty, on-the- spot realist films in the Jia manner made by his admirers. In fact, close examination makes one realise that nothing could be further from the truth than the idea that Jia just plonks his camera down on a city street or wanders around with a handheld camera and shoots at random.

A closer look shows how carefully his shots are composed. It is never by accident that a certain wall with a political slogan appears in the background of a shot. The way a long handheld take ends with a close-up on a certain detail shows lots of planning.

Perhaps most evident is the use of off-screen sound. But it is much more likely that Jia has carefully layered scripted and pre-recorded loudspeaker announcements with popular music blaring from a cassette player and dialect street voices. The fact that artifice is not evident does not mean it is not there; it only means it is successful. The Non-Independent Independent. As mentioned earlier, independent cinema began in China only in the s, when some filmmakers not only decided to make films outside the state-owned system, but also not to submit their works to the censors.

Jia was certainly one of them. But success is always a double-edged sword in China. With it comes government atten- tion. So long as you are making films very few people watch, the government would only be concerned by anything they viewed as actively subversive.

But once you start winning prizes in major film festivals, pressure comes to play by the Film Bureau rules and send your films in for censorship. At first sight, it seems he cannot be considered independent anymore. Indeed, at the time there were many discussions about that. But Jia Zhangke is always ahead of the game.

The meaning of independent has been changing in China. In the new century, the whole film industry has both involved more private companies and become market driven and dominated by large corporations. Production outside the corporate model and a refusal of the blockbuster style qualify filmmakers as independent there, and increasingly, this is the case in China, too. Although Jia has been submitted his works to the censors since The World, he has con- tinued to operate independently, pursuing his own relatively low-budget model.

Many hope that at last a new market for non-blockbusters is being opened up in China. Dirigi Um artista batedor de car- teiras Xiao Wu, quanto tinha 28 anos. Se as pessoas quiserem pensar em mim dessa forma, assim seja. No dia em que terminei uma das pro- vas, fui a uma galeria de arte. Dizia-se que esses filmes deram início ao movimento do cinema independente na China.

Ele dizia que, para fazer o filme The days, Wang Xiaoshuai pegou um trem de carga com destino a Baoding, na província de Hebei, para conseguir baixar filme em preto e branco mais barato. Entre os muitos trens uivantes que atravessavam a planície de Hebei, algum carregou certa vez um jovem com o sonho de fazer filmes.

The reason that a film director does not want to categorize him or herself is either because that he or she wants to emphasize his or her uniqueness or that he or she wants to avoid having anything to do with the negative impressions of his or her generation.

For me, this is fine. If people want to think of me as such, then so be it.

SECOND BAIXAR FILME GLANCE

That was when I applied for Beijing Film Academy. On the day that I finished one of my exams, I went to an art gallery. There, I bought a copy of China Art Newspaper. Political tumult was not yet in the distant past for Chinese people in the early s.

It was said that for his film The Days, Wang Xiaoshuai climbed up onto a freight train bound for Baoding in Hebei province to baixar cheap black-and-white film stock. I have always imagined it in my head that in those days, the young man must have looked nothing like the puffed old man now; he must have been robust and exuberant.

Amongst the numerous howling trains that traversed the bustling Hebei plain was one that once carried a young man with the dream to make films. At the time, majority of Chinese were not aware of their agency and did not think much about using film for self-expression.

There were 16 state-run studios. Like the group of people who left state enterprises to do private businesses, many of the independent filmmakers who turned their backs to institutionalized practices became acutely aware of their right for self-expression. Their works testified the credos of the in- dependent film movement by introducing new angles of speech-making that necessarily expanded the freedom for expression and the freedom that people had in society in general.

Eu era um jovem de 21 anos de Shanxi, naquele tempo. No entanto, ainda quero perguntar. Nós nos esquecemos de tudo? A partir da década de , começamos a ouvir as vozes de indivíduos de fora da retórica oficial, e eles foram incentivados pelo espírito independente.

Hoje, as pessoas comuns podem afirmar sua autoestima.

FILME SECOND GLANCE BAIXAR

Muitos foram proibidos de fazer filmes no país; alguns tiveram seus passaportes confiscados. Ainda assim, muitos cineastas continuaram a filmar, apesar daqueles que ficaram ao lado das autori- dades para rir e zombar deles.

Sim, o filme tornou-se possível graças ao livro de Wang Xiaobo e à pesquisa acadêmica de Li Yinhe. Seu esforço conjunto em organizar eventos e fazer discursos trouxe a liberdade de que as pessoas podem desfrutar hoje. Mas e o diretor Zhang Yuan? Quais de nossos filmes contaram as histórias dessas pessoas? Quais, dentre eles, in- centivaram a sociedade a reconhecer que elas existiam - ajudando os mais fracos a ganharem reconhecimento?

Em , a economia da China estava acelerando. I was a year old young man from Shanxi at the time. I knew that they formed the oppositional force against the authorities, and they were doing everything they could to fight for the freedom for self-expression. Many years later, when I heard others referring to them as an unfathomable community, quixotic Don Quixotes, and ill-timed and deviant monsters, I laughed.

Today, ordinary people can assert their self-esteem. Of course, film is not the only force that advances society, but in retrospective, film was the battleground where culture and outdated doctrines played out against each other. Many were banned from making films domestically; some had their passport confiscated too. Yet, many continued to make films, despite having those who stood alongside the authorities laugh at and mock them.

Yes, the film was made possible thanks to the book by Wang Xiaobo and the academic research by Li Yinhe. Their combined efforts spent in organizing events and making speeches brought about the freedom that people can enjoy today. But what about Director Zhang Yuan? During the reform era, many people were marginalized because they lacked power and money. Which of our films told the stories of these people?

Which, amongst them, induced society to acknowledge their existence — helping the weak gain recognition? To me, their films are the gems of Chinese culture of the s. The current situation is not the result of our market economy. It is caused by the shunning of these films from the public for the past decade or so. If not for the control over ideology for the past decade, our films would have amassed their audiences, and behind our backs a large supportive community would have formed.

In the same year, I started shooting Xiao Wu. No mesmo ano, comecei a filmar Um artista batedor de carteiras. Os diretores assumiram diferentes caminhos em suas carreiras. Durante uma pequena fase em nossas carreiras, no entanto, cada um de nós mostrou os problemas que descobrimos em nosso cotidiano, e expusemos nossas fraquezas usando o cinema como meio.

Contudo, é reconfortante para mim que muitos de nós escolham filmar a realidade usando uma abordagem realista. Durante os seis anos seguintes, eu experimentei a tirania do mercado. O mais irônico é que toda vez que nós vendemos um filme, a mídia é extremamente sensí- vel à nossa história nas bilheterias, e gostam de condenar nossos filmes à morte antes mesmo que eles cheguem às telas. Filmes de arte precisam de um tempo relativamente longo de aquecimento no mercado.

Nós sobrevivemos ao campo de batalha da economia de mercado. Fazê-lo seria ultrapassado. Seria difícil imaginar como, sem suas obras seminais, nós iríamos estender nossa cultura para o futuro ou oferecer ao mundo algo nosso.

For one short phase of our film career though, each one of us presented the problems that we discovered in our daily lives, and we exposed our weaknesses in using the film medium. However, it is reassuring to me that most of us chose to film reality using a realist approach. This trace is also a scar, leaving a pain behind, in history and in us.

A government official added that, although the government lifted the ban, we should realize that our works would soon go underground in the market economy. During the six years after the incident, I experienced the tyranny of the market.

However, that does not mean that I became antagonistic towards the market, because a mar- ket economy is part of the dream of freedom. We do not want to complain about anything. We know that there are insidious deals made behind the scenes with people with power, but we embrace the market, and we are prepared to devote ourselves to this cause till our last breath and penny.

What is most ironic is that every time we sell a film, the media are extremely sensitive to our box office history, and they like to sentence our films to death before the films even hit the screen.

Art films need a relatively long period of time for the market to warm up to them. For a month or two after their releases they can still be in the fermentation stage. When the media prognosticate that these films would have disastrous box office returns, directors will be hit hard and victimized.

Since there is not even a three-day period to get warmed up, potential viewers will walk. Nobody wants to watch dead corpses whereas everybody wants to see miracles. We have survived in the battlefield of the market economy. After the French New Wave, Truffaut became a great commercial director, with an outstanding box office record; Godard became an au- teur; but most New Wave directors fell somewhere in between.

Statues Unveiled As Urban Landmark

Personal failures and suc- cesses cannot speak for a generation. Doing so would be outdated. No matter what happens, we will always be loyal to cinema. If you are willing to accept culture as an integral part of film, I will say to you, for the past dozen years or so, all the best films that have tried to embrace culture are made by the Sixth Generation filmmakers. I still have my passion for film, for viewers, and for the market too.

Cada vez que você me machucar, Você só vai extinguir uma estrela. E assim, por que eu precisaria de suspirar? Até o egoísmo tem um domínio cada vez maior sobre nós. No entanto, quando vejo as ruas cheias, sinto-me inspirado novamente.

Elas me lembram por que quis fazer filmes em primeiro lugar. Alguns, de forma errada, desconsideram esse en- contro com a essência, como se fosse alguma forma de narcisismo. Quando o objetivo é espalhar a verdade, nunca se deve adotar um tom esmagador. Cinema deve ser entretenimento. Muitos de nós têm trabalhado muito para proteger o direito de oferecer entretenimento.

Nós vamos continuar produzindo todo tipo de bons filmes, assim como continuaremos pro- duzindo todo tipo de filmes ruins. Contudo, acredito que enquanto formos fiéis a nós mesmos, conseguiremos manter nossas almas vivas.

If so then, why would I need to sigh? Challenge the Self In the Future Like any generation of film directions, we will get old, and we will lose our creativity gradually but surely. The force that will drag us down and instigate us to abandon our true selves will continue to grow. The tire that accompanies old age both physically and mentally will invade us. Even selfishness has an increasing grasp on us. However, for me, when I see those crowded streets, I feel inspired all over again.

They remind me why I wanted to make movies in the first place. Learning how to marry ourselves to the torrid force of life and reality is what will keep us going. Many people who are familiar with revolutionary art are still being influenced by it.

This kind of art uses the most popular form to disseminate the voice of those people who are in power. Throughout this process there is no need and no space for the self. They wrongfully disregard this encounter with the self and think of it as a form of narcissism. When they fail to see the message that the film is to convey, they conclude that the film does not have a thesis. When the goal is to propagate truth, we should never adopt an overpowering tone. Do not worry about our intransigence.

Film should be entertainment. Most of us have been working hard to protect its right to offer entertainment. However, pluralism is not exclusive to entertainment. When our cultural values lose their last abode in film, pleas- ure-seeking masses will dominate. We will continue to produce all kinds of good films, so will we continue to produce all kinds of bad films. However, I believe that as long as we are true to ourselves, we will be able to keep our souls alive.

I would like to end this essay in the old-fashioned way by quoting a poem by Chinese poet Bei Dao. I do not believe that the sky is blue, I do not believe that thunder has echo, I do not believe that dreams are false, I do not believe that death defies retribution.

And I would like to add one more line: I do not believe that you can predict our future. Be Sociable, Share! A partir de meados dos anos 90, movimentos como o Dogma 95 na Dinamarca ou o cinema iraniano com destaque para Abbas Kiarostami , entre outros, parecem emergir como uma forma de resistência ao virtual. Interessante notar que essa aderência ao realismo ocorre em um momento em que todos os indicativos aponta- riam para a sucumbência às tentações do digital.

Antony Fiant , p. Em cidades como Beijing e Shanghai, prédios an- tigos ou históricos ainda persistem ao lado dos imensos arranha-céus, e com eles um modo de vida que parece existir em descompasso com o século XXI. Ao chegarem, encontram uma cidade parcialmente demolida, e assim suas buscas ocorrem em um espaço repleto de prédios desabados, muros esburacados e pilhas de entulho.

Campinas: Papirus, pp. London: BFI, pp. Acessado em Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes. London: I. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Wollen, Peter [] , Signs and Meaning in the Cinema. Londres: BFI. According to Nagib, this polycentrism is characterized by peaks of crea- tion in different countries around the world, which normally appear during periods of crisis and transition, when a new historical and social conjuncture both create the conditions and require the articulation of a new language, or new languages, better suited to address a new reality Mello, In our day, this polycentrism, as well as running through the history of cinema, also seems to be related to the current political and economic scenario in which new powers emerge in different points of the planet, no longer under the tutelage of a single power, thus leading to a polycentric global configuration.

From the mids onwards, movements such as Dogma 95 in Denmark and the Iranian cinema of Abbas Kiarostami, for instance, seem to appear as a form of resistance to the virtual, signaling the end of irony and intertextuality and a recon- nection between the moving image and objective reality, leading to new definitions of real- ism.

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It is interesting to note that this adherence to realism comes in a moment when it could seem hard to not succumb to the lures of the digital. On the contrary, digital technology has frequently acted as a facilitator of the shooting in real locations and with real characters, as well as a means to expand the use of techniques normally associated with realism, such as the bazinian long take Nagib and Mello, Antony Fiant suggests that his work is structured upon a double ques- tioning, dedicated to both China and cinema itself , p.

His films articulate the tension between mobility and immobility, time and space, old and new, past and future, and seem to work as a diagnosis of our times. On the contrary, it derives precisely from the intimate relationship that his cinema nurtures with the real, since being in China today seems to be the ultimate proof of the co-existence of contraries. This superimposition of temporalities that defines contemporary China can also be understood as a cultural trace, related to both its written and spoken language.

It also confers a collective weight to a discourse in the first person singular Portugal and Xiao, This co-existence of past and present, slowness and fastness, subsists despite the radical ruptures seen in China in the twentieth century, a country that, from the Proclamation of the Republic in to the Communist Revolution of , and from the Cultural Revolution to the Era of Reforms , has repeatedly tried to wipe away the past and reset the counter of History.

Filmed on location in the Three Gorges region, located in Chongqing, southeast China, the film takes place in Fengjie, a year old city on the brink of being submerged by the Three Gorges Dam.

As they arrive, the old city is being torn down to allow the new waterway to be fully navigable, as well as for the recycling of bricks and other construction material. Their quest thus unfolds against the backdrop of derelict buildings, collapsing walls, piles of rubble and rocks.

On the contrary, multifocal perspective privileges the idea of a movement across the painting, as if the landscape was being observed from different points of view. The scroll-shots function as a third element, alongside establishing shots from vantage points and street-level views, for the discovery of the land- scape and cityscape of the Three Gorges, and to investigate the relationship between the hu- man figure and its surroundings, bringing to the fore the superimposition of temporalities that defines Fengjie and, ultimately, the whole country.

This combination of shots and camera movements also highlights the seemingly un- changing presence of a natural landscape against the speed of change promoted by human force, heightening these opposing forces in a sort of lament for the loss of slowness and history.

For, as Fabienne Costa has accurately pointed out, Still Life shows not only how the building of the Three Gorges Dam has impacted the lives of those living in the region — and the natural landscape surrounding them — but also how it has violently disrupted the ancestral Chinese notion of landscape or shanshui mountain and water Costa, , p.

Thus his aesthetic choices, when faced with the disappearing cityscape of Fengjie and the immortal landscape of the Three Gorges, would have to hark back to a traditional form of art in order to create a bridge between contemporary reality and the historical resonance. And as is the case in Still Life, it is precisely the combination of form and content, through aesthetic resources deriving from landscape painting, which allow the director to reflect not only on the current era of transformations in his country but also on its artistic and cultural past.

The pinnacle of this regime of imposed agreements came with the model-operas, filmed during the Cultural Revolution under strict rules of representation imposed by Jiang Qing and the Gang of Four, directed at every aspect of the mise-en-scène in order to make them work in favour of the political message. Access on Santos, Milton , Pensando o espaço do homem. Diferenças que se expressam na plasticidade da imagem, nas texturas, nos volumes, nas durações, nas composições, nos personagens, nos espaços e nos tempos.

Mundos tomados por um capitalismo em estado laboratorial, hiper selvagem, que en- gendra outras formas de experiência e impregna-se na imagem.

Dança que envolve o concreto e se faz com ele. As mudanças abruptas da cidade Memórias de Xangai, e seus arranha-céus e o lugar das memórias entre o passado inacessível e o presente que se esguia.

Nesses filmes de Jia Zhangke, percebemos a cronicidade de uma escritura praticada com o real e seus escapes, fragmentos e lacunas: a plasticidade, a precariedade, a brutalidade, a materialidade, a historicidade e a inventividade do real.

A pedra e o leite. A dureza, a aridez, o rigor; a leveza, a fluidez, o vapor.

GLANCE FILME BAIXAR SECOND

O leite. A pedra. Elementos heterogê- neos que pouco nos interessam separados. Formas do real. Imagens do real. Hoje, parece cada vez mais possível conhecer o mundo sem deixar Pequim. O homem analisa a paisagem à sua volta com o semblante desorientado.

Han desce da moto e observa a desmesurada represa, ainda buscando compreender. Dezesseis anos se passaram desde que sua ex-mulher partiu da casa onde viviam e levou consigo a filha. Naque- la época, a cidade era uma cidade. Com sua rotina de automóveis, motos e bicicletas. Com lo- jas e comerciantes, festas e mitos populares: com seus dois mil anos de história às margens do Rio Amarelo.

Tanto Han, quanto a personagem vivida por Zhao Tao, musa do diretor, voltam à cidade em busca de algo. Pois algum mundo se perde, isto é certo - a cidade submergi- da em Dong e Em Busca da Vida.

No cinema de Jia Zhangke, precisamente, a memória possui um lugar.

Esquivo, certamente, acentrado. Seduzidos pela memória: arquitetura, monumentos, mídia. Rio de Janeiro: Aeroplano, p. Passado que só existe se representado, fabulado e, assim, novamente vivido. Agora, outro. Somente à sombra da luz invisível que emana do escuro do presente, o passado pode reagir às trevas do agora. Assim, nos fazem lembrar: a cidade é sempre mais um. O passado e o presente. A lembrança e o esquecimento. Ao cinema de Jia Zhangke, no entanto, interessa mesmo aquilo que escapa aos olhos e esvai.

Lembranças esquecidas. Como no poema de T. Tempo passado: cultura da memória e guinada subjetiva. Como operar uma crítica no interior desse paradoxo? Pergunta difícil de ser deduzida, tam- pouco em uma só resposta.

A frase é precisa. Passa pela dor do outro. E também a ternura, o prazer, a de- licadeza. Mas porque ele pode, de algum modo, inventar os lugares para que certos discursos se reinscrevam, cidades se reconstruam, me- mórias sejam resgatadas, sujeitos se reinventem. Rio de Janeiro: Beco do Azougue, p.

Política da arte. Mônica Costa Netto. Devir-imagem, devir-cidade, devir-memória. Poderíamos produzir uma lista de imagens ininterrupta. Desejo com reserva. Dobras e estrias da imagem.

Estamos todos no mesmo mundo sentindo os tremores e abalos sob nossos pés, assistindo as fendas abrirem aos nossos olhos. Madrid: Antonio Machado Libros, Acima de tudo, corpos, indistin- tos, e o cinema como operador das tarefas de sujar, lavar, religar, confrontar, justapor, dissi- par e montar. In the evening television news, in the news of the daily journals, Discovery Channel documentaries, by the registration numbers and brand identification printed on the electronics that invade the malls, in the street vendors merchandise, and even at the popular Brazilian sales sites Mercado Livre.

To a large extent, we can approximate the films of Jia Zhangke much more to this typed China than to some Chinese film tradition which for decades dominated the Western cinemas. It is not concern- ing to its format or how the country is economically placed by the financial arrangements or the language, but mainly because those exposed features are often linked to the order of events, such as chronicity, fused in everyday life.

Jia Zhangke films reveal a face renounced by the traditional Chinese cinema, and presents the country as a place of production which is loose from certain genres patterns, stylistic and thematic conventions affiliated to some dynastic conceptions. We see times and spaces in tension and the image as means in enabling the gathering of subjectivities, power, visibility, forces affections.

Images that summon the urgency for a cer- tain look in contact with the pressing world, in the contingencies of the real, that does not excuse itself to pass and goes on. Thus, the cinema of Jia Zhangke is effectively disconnected from a certain capacity to witness the experience as given, opening gaps for the real itself to dispute within representation systems, as a gesture of creation. In the wake of the contemporary thinking, motivated by the prerogative of the doc- umentary filming that never reduces itself into a representation or assertion, we allocate the documentary or fictional images in Jia Zhangke filmmaking as the name of freedom.

In addition, it never reduces itself in a way of restraining or clarifying certain knowledge about the world. The films, in general, allow us to formulate ordinary questions shared through the narratives by a kind of pairing.

In other words, it seems that the work of Jia remains in a stage of continuity, where the issues are successively unfolded and the images are accu- mulated.

There are, notably, inherent differences in the way each narrative happens. Although the research corpus is mainly built based on the documentary works of the mentioned Chinese filmmaker, there are constant ref- erences and descriptions of scenes, plans and sequences derived from his fiction movies as well.

In Jia Zhangke films the boundaries be- tween fiction and documentary are always alternating, creating regions of indiscernibility.

These are the regions that interest us the most. Translated by Haroldo de Campos. Regardless of the specifics, we try to think about the films with this clear sense of communion, respecting and making clear the possible features, trying to preserve at the same time what makes them share certain worlds.

Worlds taken by a capitalism in a laboratory testing stage, hyper wild, ferocious, which engenders other forms of experience and impregnates the image. Jia Zhangke does not mean to understand it and diagnose it. There is a discomfort on how these forces and powers have been transmuting the landscape, the way of work, the collective memory. Not surprising- ly, the individuals have a privileged status in their shown images. Moreover, the films are housed in this place where capitalism has already crossed the epidermal layers of the socie- ty, implying life in its minimal activities.

They do not produce ruptures only with the process and the community. They are fully taken, at the heart of the event. Dance that involves the concrete as it is performed by it, in it.

The sumptuousness of the architectural design of the Three Gorges Dong, con- trasts with the city that is about to submerge, and more than that, its inhabitants, before the disappearance of their own domicile, are obliged to invent other ways of living.

The demolished factory 24 City, Er shi si cheng ji, , beyond the disassembled material of an inadequate labor force for the industrial production in view of the new market demands, presents, at once, a sense of community and an irremediable loneliness. The abrupt changes of the city I wish I knew, Hai shang chuan qi and its skyscrapers, the place of memories between the inaccessible past and the present that rises.

In these films of Jia Zhangke, we realize the chronicity of a narrative practiced within the real and its escapes, fragments and gaps: plasticity, precariousness, brutality, material- ity, historicity and the inventiveness of the real. There is not a utopian project of emancipa- tion. It is in the very arid world that the moments of assembling, freedom and resistance are composed. An ancient tradition of deformation with the speed of a connectionist, dynamic capital- ism; the stiffness of the material that crumbles with the force of the water; the austerity of History, its landmarks, wars, independence, revolutions, conflicts, before the worldly tran- sience.

The stone and the milk. The hardness, the dryness, the rigor; the lightness, the flu- idity, the steam. The milk. The stone. Yet, it is on this run away line that things pass, what is meant to be is made, revolutions are shaped. Heterogeneous elements that do not matter to us if found separated. They are interesting to us if together, united in a relationship. The stone is subject to erosion; the milk is exposed to a volatilization.

Images of the real. Today, it seems increasingly possible to know the world without ever leaving Beijing. The man looks at the landscape around him with a bewildered looks. That grass in the water? Han leaves the bike and observes the disproportionate dam, still trying to understand the situation.

Sixteen years have passed since his ex-wife left the house where they lived and took their daughter with her. At that time, the city was a city. With its routine of automobiles, motor- cycles and bicycles. With shops and traders, festivals and popular myths: preserving its two thousand years of history on the banks of the Yellow River. The next flooding phase is marked with red painting in a wall at the top of a building: Soon enough, where men used to sit chatting, there will only be water.

Going home Xiao Shan Huijia. He seeks the former family; and the woman is looking for her husband from whom she does not receive news for about two years.

The attempt of returning becomes as a tragic impossibility in view of the town disappearance. If we could risk and we can risk at least a moment in the writing of Jia Zhangke images, we would invest in the way they do not sew the cracks of forgetfulness and the gaps between experiences and memories.

In contrast, they seem to advance to free them, accommodating evasively the memories of the cities and the individuals, retrieving them always as creation — returning in the differ- ence. Such memories do not seem to aim the full recovery, the permanence of a world that continually eludes the image and that will always escape from it. However, other forces burst and resist, as the waters of the dam that burst but can initiate at the same time a new survival space.

Without attempting to find the source, the first place in an exact past origin, in a way that all the present draws back and finds thereby its resolutions. The accumulation is lost, that leads to a total reconstruction, it loses the history strength, certain places of recognition and legitimation. The time speech, testimonies, gestures scattered at the scene of the same individuals who invest their physical and emotional pow- ers in the material construction of this world, who is not isolated and apart from the scene, but shares it.

On the other hand, if the city no longer has a place for its individuals, it will not have a place for memory either; maybe, and just maybe, the filmmaking can still give us those experiences. In Jia Zhangke filming, precisely the memory has a place. Elusive, centered. In very rare moments, only in I wish I knew whose translation undoubtedly controversial, attrib- utes a fixed meaning to the memory that distance it from the film the editing appeals to archive footage, making an explicit and assertive act of turning to the past.

Even in those moments, however, there is a strong impression that the past is never given as a recovery. Past that only exists if represented, fabled and thus again, experienced.

Now another one. At once, past experience and the memory of the present are stressed in this speech. Only at the invisible light shadow that emanates from the dark pres- ent, the past can react to the darkness of the actual times. A whole micro against the macro-political borders of the large sets. Putting in opposition, in this case, means creating something productive in this very tension, as long as the result is not consumed in itself.

Thus, it shall remember us: the city is always one more. The private and the public. The memory and forgetfulness. Writ- ing is the task of operating from networks that connect and vanish weakly, in the production between the lines, the bodies, the gestures and images.

Image over image, the city folds in other representations, revealing its variation power. In the opening scene of I wish I knew, an imposing bronze lion is shot from his back.

In his eyes, demolition, rubble of buildings and car traffic of the huge metropolis, as in any other city, in slow motion. The image is powerful: in the shadow of all that is most unchangeable, the city falls in its tracks and streams, in what eludes from the shot, in what allows to be taken in the act, in the momento, and at the same time, disappears through the row of cars. From the memory of the city maybe the bronze statues are still preserved.